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Tom Torlino (Navajo) as he appeared upon arrival to the Carlisle Indian School, October 21, 1882.
Photo Source

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Tom Torlino (Navajo) three years later
Photo Source
About Indian Boarding Schools:
Background to Louise Erdrich's Poem

| Key Issues and Challenges | A School's 1912 Daily Schedule | Excerpts from Zitkala-Sa's Nineteenth Century Account | About the Carlisle Indian Industrial School | About the Pheonix Indian School | Assimilation through Education--by Carolyn Marr | An Indian Boarding School Photo Gallery |

Compiled by Cary Nelson

Return to Louise Erdrich